Thursday, March 19, 2009

God-fearing Aalim

God-fearing ‘Aalim and his importance to the Ummah
by Imâm al-Haramain 'Abdul-Bârî ibn ‘Awad ath-Thubaytî

All praise is due to Allaah, Lord of all the worlds. May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad saws, his household, his companions and all those who follow their guidance till the Day of Reckoning.Islaam respects the ‘Ulamaa and reveres them because they are the heirs of the Prophets who follow their way. Infact, it is in respect to their dignity and merit that Allaah mentions them along with His Name and that of His Angels when He says:

“Allah bears witness that Laa ilaaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give witness); (He is always) maintaining His creation in Justice.” (Aal ‘Imraan 3:18).

It is enough a distinction for the ‘Aalim that Allaah sends blessings to him; and His angels and the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth also do ask Allaah to bless him. The Messenger of Allaah saws said:

“Verily, Allaah do send His blessings to him who teaches people good. Also, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, even ants in their holes and fishes do ask Allaah to bless him.” (At-Tirmidhee).
‘Ulamaa are the friends of Allaah; they are the ones who really fear Allaah.

“It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allaah.” (Faatir 35:28)

They bear the knowledge with the fear of Allaah, He then compensate them with great reward. Allaah says:

“Their reward with their Lord is (Eden) Paradise (Gardens of Eternity), underneath which rivers flow, they will abide therein forever, Allaah Well-Pleased with them, and they with Him. This for him who fears his Lord.” (Al-Bayyinah 98:8).

Ibnul-Qayyim said:

“Scholars of Islaam and those around whose sayings revolves Fatwa (religious counselling) among people; those who are endowed with the ability to derive rulings from the (the Qur’anic and Hadeeth) texts and whose preoccupation is the regulation of the lawful and unlawful things are to the earth what the stars are to the heaven. It is through them that the confused get guidance and people’s need of them is greater than their need of food and drink. Allaah makes obeying them greater than obeying parents when He says: “O you who believe! Obey Allaah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority.” (An-Nisaa 4:59). The ‘Ulamaa are the people’s refuge during calamities. Many a blind people have seen through them; many a dead have been given live by them; many a Sunnah have been spread through them and many an innovation have been efaced through them.”
God-conscious ‘Ulamaa are leaders in piety; if they had wanted beauties and high positions of this world, it would have come to them submissively, but they live with their knowledge and meritorious deeds in a happiness that is far better than that of the people of worldly positions; that is because, their whole life revolves around no more than what Allaah and His Prophet saws say. They do not learn knowledge for adornment purpose but to benefit from it. Their impact is so strong that, if they walk on a barren land it becomes fertile and if they step their feet on a territory full of darkness it becomes illuminated. A ‘ Aalim in the real sense of the word, is not the holder of higher certificates and academic titles. He is rather the one who has a combination of knowledge, strong and deep Eemaan, obedience to his Lord and a lot of Ibaadaat (acts of worship). These are the people of knowledge whom Allaah describes as incomparable to others when He says:

“Are those who know equal to those who know not.” (Az-Zumar 39:9).

Ibn Al-Mubaarak was asked:

“How can a true knowledgeable man be recognised?’ He replied: ‘He is the one who is ascetic in this world and occupies himself with the affairs of the hereafter.”
Nevertheless, ‘Ulamaa should not be regarded as perfect beings who are immunised against any defects, errors or mistakes; for, this is quite impossible. However, one should not be looking for the mistakes of a knowledgeable man because he may have an excuse that is unknown to us or that, this mistake may have a reason which can not be perceived by us. If the Prophets -peace be on them- have the right to be honoured and revered, their inheritors should also have a share of that. The Messenger of Allaah saws said:

“The ‘Ulamaa are indeed the heirs of the Prophets.” (Aboo Daawood and others).
It is therefore incumbent on us to love them, to obey them in good, to defend them and ask for Allaah’s Mercy for those who are deceased among them. Ibn Abbaas ra said

: “Whoever annoys a knowledgeable man has annoyed the Messenger of Allaah; and whoever annoys the Messenger of Allaah has annoyed Allaah.”
Brothers in Islaam! Death of ‘Ulamaa is an irreparable loss to this Ummah. We beseech Allaah to forgive the deceased among them and to benefit us with the knowledge of the living ones.
Yes! Eyes do shed tears and hearts do get saddened, but if all of us shed our tears, that cannot change the situation nor prevent any harm. Actually, reaction of people of weak minds -after the death of ‘Ulamaa- do not go beyond shedding tears and mere wailings and lamentations; but people of lofty aims and enlightened minds do go beyond that for, they know that sincere love for those scholars means to live according to their way; to die on their path; to be good example in knowledge and good deeds; to be leaders in piety and humbleness; to be models in patience and perseverance and to be pace-setters in generousity and sacrifice. Such are the characteristics of the ‘Ulamaa and such should be the characteristics of those who love them. The ‘Ulamaa are not personalities whose virtues should merely be sung or written on pages without benefiting from their light. Ibraaheem ibn Habeeb said:

“My father told me: My son! Go to the ‘Ulamaa, take knowledge from them and learn from their manners, characters and guidance; that is dearer to me than your learning of many Hadeeths (without manners).”
Brethren in Faith! There is nothing strange in the death of ‘Ulamaa for, such is the end of all living creatures; but the big calamity and the greatest tribulation is when their knowledge dies with them and their illuminating legacies gets buried with them. Therefore, it is a matter of obligation for those who are indebted to these ‘Ulamaa -i.e. their children and students- to promptly bring out their scholastic treasures so that this Ummah and the coming generations may benefit there from.
Death of some ‘Ulamaa no doubt posses a big challenge to their contemporaries as well as other students of knowledge. They are obliged to fill the gap and keep the light of guidance burning.
Dear brothers, responsibilities of ‘Ulamaa vary according to the differences in levels of their knowledge. The responsibility of the person who has got a share of the Prophets’-peace be on them- Legacy is the fear of Allaah, constant remembrance of the hereafter, following the path of those Prophets, seeking knowledge for Allaah’s sake, high degree of moral character and striving to remove bonds of ignorance from the midst of this Ummah. It is improper to be an inheritor of the Prophets’ Legacy without being perfectly on their path.O you people of knowledge! Be trustees over this religion by saveguarding it from alterations and acquaint the Ummah with the realities of Islaam and lead it back to its pure sources: the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Protect the Ummah from epidemic tendencies and misleading ideologies. Do not hide the knowledge that Allaah has endowed you with. Allaah says:

“Those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allaah and cursed by the cursers.” (Al-Baqarah 2:159).

O you people of knowledge! Dangerous is that discord and deadly contention which is rampant among you. Give harmony and mutual love a chance amongst yourselves and keep yourselves away from insignificant issues.
O people of knowledge! Let not your goal be mere attainment of academic titles and degrees lest you abandon your teaching roles in scholastic gatherings where the rising generation of ‘Ulamaa are being groomed. When you take a keen look at this Ummah, whose membership of over one billion Muslims scatter all over the world and you see that, a vast majority of them are engrossed in ignorance of their religion, you will realize for sure that the Ummah is in dire need of tens (of thousands) of God-fearing scholars; those who regard this world disdainfully and preffer what is with Allaah; that it is in need of ‘Ulamaa who will be vanguards of this religion, directing people to Allaah with their sayings and deeds and explaining to them the lawful and unlawful things. If not for the ‘Ulamaa, mankind would have been like beasts and people would have remained in perplexed state of ignorance. Yahyaa ibn Mu’aadh said:

“‘Ulamaa are more compassionate to the followers of Muhammad saws than their fathers and mothers... because, their fathers and mothers protect them from the hell of this world and the ‘Ulamaa protect them from the hell of the hereafter.’’
The Ummah is therefore in need of those ‘Ulamaa, whose deeds do actually have more impact on people than their words. Yes, the world is full of books which one can read and benefit from, but it can not make a God-fearing ‘Aalim dispensable, because, a ‘Aalim is a living example of knowledge and good deeds; an epitome of piety and righteousness.
Dear brothers! When you ponder over the histories of God-fearing ‘Ulamaa in the first stages of their learning, you will see that they had many contemporaries during this stage. But Allaah selected them and blessed them with extraordinary qualities that make them well-accepted and loved by the dwellers of the heaven and the earth. Allaah made them a direction of knowledge and meeting point of its seekers. Their love is very deep in people’s hearts and scenes of their funerals are enough an evidence for that. This mammoth crowd do not come out for their funerals because of their money, for, they usually do not leave any money behind, nor do these people trooped out because they were forced to. Such is the case of God-fearing ‘Ulamaa. Hundreds of years do pass after their death and yet their stories and remembrance remain fresh in people’s memories. Then let us ponder: How did these people attain what they have attained? It is by the power of knowledge, good deeds and sincerity. They were truthful with their Lord so He treated them with truth.
Brethren in Faith! The ‘Ulamaa do die and others also do die. But there is difference between two deaths. Far is the difference between a death after a life that was full of generousity and through which Allaah revived a set of people and brought light to them after they had been in darkness; and a death after a slugish life ridden with weak piety and preocuppied with mundane affairs. When the ‘Ulamaa die, their knowledge perpetuate for them in this earth a new life, their names are engraved in peoples’s hearts as a result of the useful knowledge they leave behind and their written works that seekers of knowledge devote themselves to. But as regards others, some of them die before the actual death comes to them. They may even not have any good mention while they are alive nor any prayer for Allaah’s Mercy on them when they die.The companions of the Prophet saws were overpowered by despair and confusion after his death because of their burning love for him. Aboo Bakr ra then came and said his famous saying:

“Whoever used to worship Muhammad r should be aware that Muhammad r is now dead and whoever used to worship Allaah should know that Allaah is Ever-Living, Immortal.”
The Islamic Faith shall remain and the Divine Message shall survive. The religion survived after the death of the Messengers -peace be on them-; it survived after the death of Muhammad saws and it shall survive after the death of some ‘Ulamaa. There should be no pessimism nor weakness no matter how great the calamity may be. The Religion is Allaah’s and He has guaranteed its safety and victory. Allaah says:

“It is He Who has His Messenger (Muhammad) with guidance and the rreligion of truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allaah) hate (it).” (At-Tawbah 9:33).

Therefore, we should not lose hope at all in the Mercy of Allaah for, the Prophet saws has assured us thus:

“A group of my nation will ever be consistently prevalent with the truth they shall abide by; those who forsake them will not be able to harm them. They shall remain so until the command of Allaah comes.” (Muslim).
In view of all this, this Ummah is so fortunate that Allaah has made it the True Community and promised that He shall never forsake it. He endowed it with ‘Ulamaa who are the inheritors of the Prophets and He has not left this Ummah throughout her history in a period without ‘Ulamaa so much so that each time a ‘Aalim dies Allaah substitute him with many of his contemporaries and his like to continue keeping the religion upright. All praise be to Allaah.

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Fiqh Siyasi

Hasan Al-Banna menjelaskan da’wah dalam berbagai sisinya: politik, da’wah, gerakan, penyusunan strategi, dan ekonomi.

Kajian terhadap pusaka mengenai tulisan-tulisan Hasan Al Banna perlu mendapatkan perhatian, terutama trkait fiqih politik (Fiqih Siyaasi) Beliau. Beliau merupakan seorang pembaru (mujaddid) abad keduapuluh tanpa perlu dipertentangkan. Beliau semasa hidupnya berpikir keras terhadap berbagai permasalahan dunia Islam dan terhadap keadaan ummat Islam, terutama masalah konspirasi terhadap negara Islam.
Beliau telah hidup di zaman kaum salibis yang memerangi dunia Islam, menghapus negara Islam Utsmaniyah, mengeluarkan statemen bahwa Ataturk melakukan skularisasi negara dan menghapus Khilafah, kemudian Perancis dan Inggris Raya membagi daerah itu setelah Perang Dunia Pertama (PD I) sesuai kesepakatan yang dilakukan oleh masing-masing utusan dari Ingris dan Perancis, Saix dan Bico, yang menamakan kesepakatan tersebut dengan kedua nama mreka (Kesepakatan Saix-Bico).
Imam Hasan Al Banna telah menyaksikan perpecahan dunia Islam menjadi negara-negara jajahan yang dijajah oleh negara-negara kafir salibis, yang dibantu oleh negara ex Uni Soviet yang haus darah ummat Islam seperti di negara Chesnya, Kaukas serta kawasan lainnya.
Ustadz Hasan Al Banna berusaha mengumpulkan para ulama dan pemimpin untuk sebuah proyek kerja besar, yakni meneruskan kembali kehidupan Islam dan membebaskan negara-negara umat Islam dari kaum penjajah. Beliau melihat mayoritas kaum Muslimin dalam keadaan kehilangan semangat dan ketakutan yang sangat kentara. Tetapi Beliau tidak pustus asa terhadap berbagai situasi dan kondisi yang menhancurkan tersebut. Bahkan Beliau berinisiatif dimulai dari dirinya sendiri untuk bekerja, mengumpulkan dan menyusun rencana. Dengan beberapa suara Muslimnya, Beliau mendirikan Jama’ah Ikhwanul Muslimin di daerah Isma’iliyah.
Pemikiran Beliaupun diserap oleh banyak orang, sehingga menyebabkan Beliau dicintai sangat luas yang mana hal itu belum pernah terjadi untuk satu orangpun dari para pemimpin di daerahnya, lalu mereka mengikuti jalan dan pemikiran Beliau serta menjadi tentara dan pengikutnya.
Di antara hal yang tidak diragukan lagi ialah da’wah Beliau itu berkomitmen dengan Islam, baik sebagai aqidah, syari’ah dan sistem kehidupan. Beliau menjelaskan da’wah tersebut dalam berbagai sisinya: politis, da’wah, gerakan, penyusunan strategi dan ekonomi. Orang yang mengamati apa yang Beliau tulis dalam risalah-risalah dan diktat-diktat Beliau akan menemukan bahwa Imam Hasan Al Banna adala seorang pemimpin politik yang diikuti masyarakat banyak. Beliau memiliki pemahaman politik Islam (Fiqih Siyasi Islami) yang diambil dari pemahaman kalangan intelektual dan ulama Islam.
Benar, Beliau adalah seorang faqih dengan sebenarnya, politikus ulung, memiliki pengalaman yang luas, kejeniusan dan kedudukan yang disaksikan oleh setiap orang yang mengenalnya baik dari musuh maupun teman dalam kadar yang sama. Robert Jackson telah bertemu dengan Ustadz Hasan Al-Banna pada tahun 1946 mengatakan: “Saya memperkirakan akan datang suatu hari yang mana laki-laki ini mengusai kepemimpinan masyarakat, tidak hanya di Mesir, bahkan di seluruh wilayah Timur. Dr. Kamjian, seorang dosen ilmu politik di Universitas New York mengatakan: “Kemunculan Al-Banna merupakan contoh yang melambangkan kepribadian keluarga yang muncul pada waktu-waktu krisis untuk melakukan tugas kebebasan sosial spiritual.
Thanthawi Jauhari berkata: “Dalam pandangan saya, Hasan Al-Banna lebih besar dari Al-Afghani dan Muhammad Abduh. Beliau memiliki temperamen yang menakjubkan yang berupa takwa dan kecerdikan politis, Beliau berhati Ali dan berotak Mu’awiyah. Saya melihat padanya sifat-sifat seorang pemimpin yang mana dunia Islam sedang kehilangan tokoh seperti itu.
Robert Jackson mengatakan tentang kepemimpinan Hasan Al-Banna: “Beliau adalah seorang yang paling jenius di antara para politisi, paling kuat di antara para pemimpin, paling berargumen di antara para ulama, paling beriman di antara para sufi, paling semangat di antara para atlit, paling tajam di antara para filsuf, paling diplomatis di antara para orator, dan paling bermisi di antara para penulis. Masing-masing sisi dari sisi-sisi ini muncul dengan istimewa pada waktu yang pas pula.
Dahulu politik penjajahan mengarahkan para pemimpin bangsa dari jihad politik mereka untuk membebaskan negeri menjadikan mereka sebagai agen kolonial dengan jalan menyogok mereka dengan harta, mengiming-iming mereka dengan perempuan dan meletakan mereka dalam jeratan mereka, dan menjatuhkan mereka dengan cara menobatkan mereka sebagai penguasa dan pemimpin Negara agar mereka tidak mampu keluar dari politik kaum kolonialis itu.
Adapun Hasan Al-Banna –semoga Allah merahmatinya– maka Beliau telah selamat dari mala petaka perempuan, harta dan jabatan. Rober Jakcson mengatakan: “Iming-iming melalui tiga hal ini yang dipaksakan oleh penjajah terahadap para Mujahidinin menemui kegagalan dalam berbagai percobaan dan telah diupayakan untuk mengiming-iming Hasan Al-Banna.”
Robert Jackson berkomentar tentang Beliau: “Madzhab politik Hasan Al-Banna adalah mengembalikan materi moral (akhlak) ke dalam relung politik setelah materi tersebut dicabut dari politik dan setelah dikatakan bahwa politik dan akhlak tidak dapat bersatu.
Beberapa sahabat yang saya cintai di mana saya tidak munmgkin menolak permintaan mereka, telah menasehati saya dan mengusulkan pada saya agar menulis Fiqih Politik Hasan Al-Banna – semoga Allah merahmatinya – sebagai bentuk kepedulian terhadap Beliau dan pemikiran Beliau setelah kematian Beliau dan sebagai penyebaran manfaat bagi pengikut dan pecinta Beliau. Saya juga telah menemukan dalam diri saya suatu keinginan yang sama dengan keinginan sahabat-sahabat saya yang harus saya perkenankan dan perhatikan permintaan mereka.
Maka sayapun setia dalam membaca berbagai risalah, diktat Beliau, berbagai tulisan yang diberikan kepada saya dan apa yang ditulis tentang Beliau. Allah Tabaraka wa Ta’ala telah membantu saya untuk menulis buku yang tipis ini yang saya beri nama: “Fiqih Politik Menurut Imam Hasan Al-Banna” Rahimahullah.
Penulis: Dr. Muhammad Abdul Qadir Abu Faris

Thursday, March 12, 2009

Semai Cinta Rasul

Pada suatu hari Umar bin Khattab berkata kepada Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, “Ya Rasulullah, sesungguhnya engkau lebih aku cintai dari segala sesuatu kecuali dari diriku sendiri.” Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam pun menjawab, “Tidak, demi Allah, hingga aku lebih engkau cintai daripada dirimu sendiri.” Maka berkatalah Umar, “Demi Allah, sekarang engkau lebih aku cintai daripada diriku sendiri!” (HR. Al-Bukhari dalam Shahih-nya, lihat Fath al-Bari [XI/523] no: 6632)

Di lain kesempatan, Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam menegaskan, “Demi Allah, sesiapaun di antara kamu tidak akan dianggap beriman hingga diriku lebih dia cintai dari pada orang tua, anaknya dan seluruh manusia.” (HR. Al-Bukhari dalam Shahih-nya, lihat Fath al-Bari [I/58] no: 15, dan Muslim dalam Shahih-nya [I/67 no: 69])

Termaktub dalam sejarah bualan yang terjadi antara Abu Sufyan bin Harb, sebelum dia masuk Islam dengan sahabat Zaid bin ad-Dathinah yang ketika itu tertawan oleh kaum musyrikin. Dia pun dibawa keluar oleh penduduk Mekkah dari tanah haram untuk dibunuh. Abu Sufyan bertanya, “Ya Zaid, engkau mahu tak kalau tempatmu sekarang digantikan oleh Muhammad dan kami penggal lehernya, kemudian engkau kami bebaskan kembali ke keluargamu?” Serta merta Zaid menjawab, “Demi Allah, aku sama sekali tidak rela jika Muhammad sekarang berada di rumahnya tertusuk duri pun sedangkan aku berada di rumahku bersenang-senang dengan keluargaku!!!” Maka Abu Sufyan pun berkata, “Tidak pernah aku jumpai sesiapa pun mencintai orang lain seperti cinta para sahabat Muhammad kepada Muhammad!” (Al-Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, karya Ibnu Katsir [V/505], dan kisah ini diriwayatkan pula oleh al-Baihaqy dalam Dalail an-Nubuwwah [III/326]).

Anas bin Malik radhiyallahu ‘anhu berkisah, “Di tengah-tengah berkecamuknya peperangan Uhud, tersebar desas-desus di antara penduduk Madinah bahwa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam terbunuh, hingga terdengarlah esak tangis di penjuru kota Madinah. Maka keluarlah seorang wanita dari kalangan kaum Anshar dari rumahnya, di tengah-tengah jalan dia diberitahu bahwa bapanya, anaknya, suaminya dan saudara kandungnya telah tewas terbunuh di medan perang. Ketika dia memasuki sisa-sisa kancah peperangan, dia lalui di antara jasad-jasad yang bergelimpangan, “Siapakah ini?”, tanya perempuan itu. “Bapakmu, saudaramu, suamimu dan anakmu!”, jawab orang-orang yang ada di situ. Perempuan itu segera menyahut, “Apa yang terjadi dengan Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam?!” Mereka menjawab, “Itu ada di depanmu.” Maka perempuan itu bergegas menuju Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam dan menarik bajunya seraya berkata, “Demi Allah wahai Rasulullah, aku tidak akan mempedulikan (apapun yang menimpa diriku) selama engkau selamat!” (Disebutkan oleh al-Haithami dalam Majma’ az-Zawaid [VI/115], dan dia berkata, “Diriwayatkan oleh ath-Thabrani dalam al-Ausath dari syaikhnya Muhammad bin Su’aib dan aku tidak mengenalnya, sedangkan perawi yang lain adalah terpercaya.” Diriwayatkan pula oleh Abu Nu’aim dalam al-Hilyah [II/72, 332]).

Anas bin Malik radhiyallahu ‘anhu mengisahkan, “Ada seseorang yang bertanya kepada Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam tentang hari kiamat, “Bila kiamat datang?” Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam menjawab, “Apa yang telah engkau bekalkan untuk menghadapinya?” Orang itu menjawab, “Wahai Rasulullah, aku belum mempersiapkan shalat dan puasa yang banyak, hanya saja aku mencintai Allah dan Rasul-Nya shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam.” Maka Rasulullah pun shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam bersabda, “Seseorang (di hari kiamat) akan bersama orang yang dicintainya, dan engkau akan bersama yang engkau cintai.” Anas pun berkata, “Kami tidak lebih bahagia daripada mendengarkan sabda Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, ‘Engkau akan bersama orang yang engkau cintai.’” Anas kembali berkata, “Aku mencintai Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam, Abu Bakar dan Umar, maka aku berharap akan bisa bersama mereka (di hari kiamat), dengan cintaku ini kepada mereka, meskipun aku sendiri belum (bisa) beramal sebanyak amalan mereka.” (HR. Al-Bukhari dalam Shahih-nya, lihat Fath al-Bari [X/557 no: 6171] dan at-Tirmidzi dalam Sunan-nya [2385]).