Monday, May 26, 2008

Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati during the Uthmaniyyah

In the year 1454, Rabbi Yitzhak Sarfati of the Ottoman city of Edirne sent a letter to his co-religionists in Europe who were suffering under the persecutions of medieval anti-Semites. “"Leave the torments you endure in Christendom,"” the Rabbi suggested, “"and seek safety and prosperity in Turkey."” This Islamic land was a haven for all, he added. “"Here every man dwells at peace under his own vine and fig tree.”"

Many Sephardic Jews listened to Sarfati's advice in 1492, when they were expelled from the all-Catholic Spain simply because they remained loyal to their faith. Ships carried many Jewish refugees to Ottoman lands, where they were personally welcomed by Sultan Bayazid II, who was one of the most pious of all Ottoman monarchs.

Bernard Lewis, the doyen of Middle Eastern studies in the West, once said: "the Jews were not just permitted to settle in the Ottoman lands, but were encouraged, assisted and sometimes even compelled." For them, the lands of Islam became the lands of safety.

Wednesday, May 21, 2008

Ten Things We Waste

Ten Things We Waste
Lessons from Imam Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

1. Our Knowledge: Wasted by not taking action with it

2. Our Actions: Wasted by committing them without sincerity.

3. Our Wealth: Wasted by using on things that will not bring us ajr (reward from Allah). We waste our money, our status, our authority, on things which have no benefit in this life or in akhirah (hereafter).

4. Our Hearts: Wasted because they are empty from the love of Allah, and the feeling of longing to go to Him, and a feeling of peace and contentment. In it's place, our hearts are filled with something or someone

5. Our Bodies: Wasted because we don't use them in ibadah (worship) and service of Allah.

6. Our Love: Our emotional love is misdirected, not towards Allah, but towards something/someone else.

7. Our Time: Wasted, not used properly, to compensate for that which has passed, by doing what is righteous to make up for past deeds.

8. Our Intellect: Wasted on things that are not beneficial, that are detrimental to society and the individual, not in contemplation or reflection.

9. Our Service: Wasted in service of someone who will not bring us closer to Allah, or benefit in dunyaa.

10. Our Dhikr
(Remembrence of Allah): Wasted, because it does not effect us or our hearts.

The Statement of the Imams on Theological Rhetoric and Philosophy

Imam al-Barbahaaree (rahimahullah):

“Rhetoric (kalaam) causes disbelief, doubts, innovations, misguidance and confusion. May Allah have mercy upon you! Know that heresy, disbelief, doubts, innovations, misguidance and confusion about the religion have never occurred except through theological rhetoric (Kalam) and because of the people of theological rhetoric, argumentation, debating and disputation. How can a man plunge into argumentation, disputation and debating seeing that Allah, the Most High, said: ‘None dispute regarding the Aayaat (revelations, signs, proofs) of Allah except those who disbelieve.’ (Soorah Ghaafir 40/4) You should submit to and be pleased with the narrations and the people of narrations, withhold and remain silent.” (The Explanation of The Creed of Imaam Al Barbahaaree)

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah):

“There is no analogical reasoning in the Sunnah and examples or likenesses are not to be made for it. Nor is it grasped and comprehended by the intellects or the desires. Rather it [consists of] following [and depending upon] it and abandoning the hawaa [desire].” (Foundations of the Sunnah)

“The person of theological rhetoric will never prosper. And never do you see anyone looking into theological rhetoric except that in his heart is a desire for creating mischief.’ (Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’an)

“ For indeed, (indulging in) theological rhetoric (kalaam) in the matter of Qadar, the Ru’yah (seeing Allaah in the Hereafter), the Qur’aan and other such issues are among the ways that are detested and which are forbidden. The one Who does so, even if he reaches the truth with his words, is not from Ahlus-Sunnah, until he abandons (using) this mode of argumentation, [and until he] submits and believes in the Aathaar (the Prophetic Narrations & those of the Companions).” (Foundations of the Sunnah)

Imam Sufyaan ath-Thawree (rahimahullah):

repeated thrice: “This religion is based upon narrations not opinions, This religion is based upon narrations
not opinions, This religion is based upon narrations not opinions.” (Sharaf Ashaabul Hadeeth)

Imam al-Awzaa’ee ( rahimahullah):

"Hold fast to the narrations of the Salaf, even if people were to abandon you. (And) Beware of the opinions of the people, no matter how much they beautify it with their speech." (Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa vol. 12, p. 497)

Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah):

I have found those who study philosophy and engage in its discussions [to be] a group of people who do not follow the path of the pious predecessors, the companions of the Prophet, (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam). I found their hearts to he hard, for they do not care if they go against the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) , and the pious predecessors- with whom Allah is pleased. They [the philosophers] are impious. (The History of the Islamic Madhabs, Vol. 2 p. 132)

Al-Bazzaaz reported that Abu Haneefah forbade his sons and students from discussing philosophy. In fact, Abu Haneefah said: May Allaah curse ‘Amr bin ‘Ubaid. He opened the gate of philosophy to people. (Sawn al-Mantiq of As-Suyooti, p.60)

‘Abdullaah ibn al-Mubaarak (rahimahullah):

Imam ‘Abdullaah bin Ahmad quotes ‘Abdullaah ibn al-Mubaarak as saying : “....I bear witness that You (Allah) are above Your Throne above the seven heavens. And this is not as the enemies of Allah say, the heretics.” (‘as-Sunnah’ of Imam ‘Abdullaah ibn Ahmad)

Aboo Yoosuf (rahimahumullah):

“Whoever sought knowledge (of Islaam) by kalam (theological rhetoric); will become a zindeeq (heretical apostate).” (Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’an)

Imam ash-Shaafi’ee (rahimahullah):

“My ruling regarding the people of theological rhetoric is that they should be beaten with palm leaves and shoes and be paraded amongst the kinsfolk and the tribes with it being announced, ‘This is the reward of the one who abandons the Book and the Sunnah and turns to theological rhetoric (kalam).” (Sharh ‘Aqeedatit-Tahaawiyyah of lbn Abil-’Izz, p. 75)

“That a person is put to trial with everything that Allah has forbidden, besides Shirk, is better than that he looks at Kalam (theological rhetoric).”...He (rahimahullah) also said, “If people knew what (misleading and destructive) desires are contained within theological rhetoric they would flee from it as they would from a lion,”...He (rahimahullah) also said, “Whoever showed boldness in approaching theological rhetoric will never prosper. (Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’an)

Ibn Khuzaima (rahimahullah):

Ibn ‘Abdul Barr (rahimahullah) reported with his chain of narration from the scholars of the Maalikees in the east from Ibn Khuzaima that he said in the book of witnesses (Kitaab ush-Shuhudaat) in explanation of the saying of Imam Maalik that it is not permissible to accept the witness of the people of innovation and innovated sects, and he said: `The people of the innovated sects in the view of Maalik and the rest of our Companions are the people of theological rhetoric (kalam). So every person of the theological rhetoric is from the people of the innovated sects and innovation: whether he is an Ash`aree, or other than an Ash`aree, and his witness is not accepted in Islaam ever. Indeed he is to be ostracized and punished for his innovation and if he persists in it repentance is to be sought from him.” (Jaami’ Bayaan il-‘Ilmi wa Fadhlihee 2/117)

al-Muzanee (rahimahullah):

Muhammad ibn ‘Aqeel bin al-Azhar said : A man came to al-Muzanee asking him about kalam (theological rhetoric) and al-Muzanee stated : “I hate it, and indeed ash-Shaafi’ee forbade me form getting involved in it.” (Reported by al-Harraawee in Dhamm ul-Kalam, vol.4 pp.283, 359)

Imam Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr (rahimahullah):

“The people of Fiqh and Aathaar in all the various towns and cities are agreed unanimously that the Ahlul-Kalam (People of Theological Rhetoric) are (but) Ahlul-Bid'ah waz-Zaigh (the People of Innovations and Deviation). And they are not considered, by all of the above, to be amongst the ranks of the Scholars (in truth).” (Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in his Burhaan fee Bayaanil-Qur’an)

Imam Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalaani (rahimahullah):

“Their sayings with regards to censuring the people of Kalaam (philosophical speech and theology) are well known. The reason for such censure was that the people of ‘Kalam’ spoke about those matters which both the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) and his Companions (radhiyallaahu ‘ anhum) remained quiet about. It is established from Imam Maalik that there did not exist at the time of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) nor that of Abu Bakr (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) or 'Umar (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu), anything from these desires - meaning: the innovation of the Khawaarij, the Raafidah and the Qadariyah. Indeed, those who came after the first three excellent generations expanded upon matters which the Imaams of the Taabi'oon and those who followed them, rejected. The people of Kalam did not content themselves, until they filled the Deen with issues and the sayings of the philosophers. They made this philosophy the basis and the fundamental principle to which everything was referred back to, and all that which opposed it from the narrations of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam), his Companions (radhiyallaahu ‘ anhum) and the Salaf who followed them ; then ta’weel (false interpretation) was made of them, even if they were averse to the result. Nor did they content themselves with just this. They claimed that what they had compiled was the noblest branch of knowledge and the most deserving to be acquired; and that those who did not use what they had laid down, then they were from the laymen and the ignorant ones. So delight is for the one who clings to what the Salaf were upon, and distances himself from the innovations that the khalaf (the latecomers who opposed the ‘aqeedah and manhaj of the Salaf) introduced. However, if one cannot keep away from it, then let him take only that which he needs and let the way of the Salaf be his intended goal.” (Fath al Baaree 13/253)

Ibn Qudaamah (rahimahullah):

While talking about the Names and Attributes of Allaah, he said: "There is no question about the fact that the doctrine of the Salaf (pious predecessors), in this regard, consisted in acknowledgment, unreserved approval, and avoidance of the temerity of using ta’weel, tamtheel, tajseem and tashbeeh." "Let him who claims that they (i.e. the Salaf) did interpret them allegorically produce evidence in support of his statement. There is no way of knowing this save by the transmission and relation of traditions. Let him then transmit to us traditions of this effect on the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) or that of his Companions (radhiyallaahu ‘anhum) or on the authority of one of the Taabi'een or one of the approved Imaams. Furthermore, he who claims this : is one of the partisans of Kalaam; and they are the most ignorant of men with regard to the traditions of the Companions, the least possessed of knowledge with regard to those of the Taabi'een, and the most neglectful of their transmission. Whence then , would they have knowledge of traditions such as these? Even so, should anyone among them transmit something, his transmission would not be accepted, nor would he be heeded. The sole possessions of these people consist in forgery, falsehood, and false witness." (Lum’atul I’tiqaad pg. 7)

Shuraih al-Qaadee (rahimahullah):

“Verily, the Sunnah has preceded your qiyaas (analogical reasoning), so follow and do not innovate.” (Reported in Sunan ad-Daarimee, 1/66 and Sharhus-Sunnah of al-Baghawee, 1/216)

Imam ad-Daaraqutnee (rahimahullah):

"It is authentically related from ad-Daaraqutnee that he said: “There is nothing more despised by me than 'ilmul-kalaam (philosophy and rhetoric).” (Siyar a’alameen an-nubalaa 16/457)

Imam adh-Dhahabee (rahimahullah) & Imam al-Qurtubee (rahimahullah):

“ And al-Qurtubee also said in ‘al-Asnaa’: "Many of the past and contemporary philosophers said, ‘When it is necessary to purify the Creator (al-Baaree) - whose Magnificence is great - from having direction (jihah) and demarcation (tamayyuz), then from the requirements and necessary consequences of this, in the view of most of the past scholars and their leading contemporaries, is to purify the Creator (al-Baaree) from having direction (jihah). In their view, direction does not have the aspect of ‘above’ to it. This is because to them, when Allaah is designated with direction, this would necessitate that He is restricted to a place (makaan) and confinement (hayyiz). (Subsequently), a place and confinement necessitate (for Him) (such) movement and stillness that is related to distinction (tamayyuz), transformation (taghayyur) and new occurrences(hudooth). This is the saying of the philosophers.’ I (adh-Dhahabee) say, "Yes, this is what the deniers of the ‘uluww (highness) of the Lord, Mighty and Majestic, have depended upon. And they turned away from the requirement of the Book, the Sunnah, the sayings of the Salaf and the innate dispositions of the whole of creation. What they claim to be necessitated (from affirming Allaah’s highness) is only applicable to created bodies. Yet there is nothing like Allaah and that necessities arising from the clear and evident texts (of the Book and the Sunnah) are also true. However, we do not make use of any explanation except one that comes through a narration. In addition to this we say, ‘We do not accept that the Creator’s being upon His Throne and above the heavens, necessitates that He is confined and in spatial direction since whatever is below the Throne is said to be confined and in spatial direction. However, what is above the Throne is not like that. And Allaah is above the Throne as the very first generation are unanimously agreed upon this fact and as the Imaams after them have quoted from them. They said this in refutation of the Jahmiyyah, those who said that He is in every place seeking as a proof His saying, ‘And He is with you…’. So these two sayings were the very two sayings which were present during the time of the Taabi’een and their successors who came after them. And they are the two sayings that can be understood in this statement (i.e. of the philosophers). As for the third saying which came around after this which is that Allaah, the Most High, is not in any place, nor is His Holy Essence (Dhaat) confined, nor is He separate and distinct from His creation, nor is he in any spatial direction, nor is He outside of any spatial directions, and nor this and nor that…’ then this is something that cannot be comprehended nor understood , along with the fact that within it ; is opposition to the verses (of the Book) and the narrations (from the Salaf). Therefore flee with your religion and beware of the opinions of the philosophers. Believe in Allaah and what has come from Him upon the desired intent of Allaah, then submit your affair to Him and there is no power nor movement except by Allah." (‘al-Uluww lil-‘Aliyyil-Ghaffaar’ pp.286-287)

No person should ever enter into 'ilmul-kalaam, nor argumentation. Rather, he should be Salafee (a follower of the Salaf)." (Siyar a’alameen an-nubalaa 16/457)

Ibn Al-Jawzee (rahimahullah):

“Whatever opposes the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and the way of the Salaf ; is to be rejected. And whatever is in agreement is accepted because it is not innovated. The acceptance is not an approval of the terminology or the essence of Soofism in any of its stages. It remains to be remembered that it is not true that every pious Zaahid (ascetic) Muslim is necessarily a Soofee:. The zuhaad (pl.zaahid) of the later time were more influenced by scholastic theology (‘ilm ul kalaam) which began to creep into the Ummah following the translations of many of the philosophical concepts of the Hindus, Greeks, Romans and Persians. Consequently they deviated away from the way of the Sahaabah and their followers among the Taabi’een.” (Majmoo’ Fataawaa 10:358, 366-367)

“The heretics claim; i) there is none in the Heavens, ii) neither is there Qur’aan in the Mushaf, and iii) nor is there a Prophet in the grave; [these are] ‘your three shameful facets.” (Reported by Ibn Rajab in al-Dhayl)

“They believed in what their speculations dictated to them without referring to the Prophets. From them are those who believed in the doctrine of al-Dahriyya - that the world has no Creator… Most of them affirmed an eternal cause (‘illa qaadima) for the world, and then stated that the world is eternal, which has always been in existence along with Allaah… They also concealed their doctrine by saying: ‘Allaah is the Creator of this world’, meaning: figuratively and not literally… Their doctrine also includes that the world is ever lasting; just as its existence has no beginning, it has no end. “They also believed that Allaah’s Knowledge and Ability is in fact His Essence, in order to avoid affirming multiple eternal entities… The philosophers also denied the Resurrection, the return of souls to the bodies, and the bodily existence of Paradise and Hell, claiming that the two were merely paradigms for people to understand the concept of spiritual reward and punishment.” “We noticed the philosophers from the adherents to our religion, that their philosophical path earned them confusion, hence, they adhered to neither philosophy, nor Islaam. In fact, amongst them is one who fasts the Ramadhaan and prays, and then begins to object at the Creator and Prophethood, and denies the Resurrection.” (Ibn al-Jawzee, Talbees Iblees, p 59-65)

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah):

“Thus, what the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) said appeared. He (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) said: “Then lies will become widespread, to such an extent that a person will testify and will not have been asked to do so, and will take an oath without being asked to do so.” 55 Then three matters occurred: ra’ee (opinion), Kalaam (philosophical speech and theology) and tasawwuf (Soofism). The innovation of the Jahmiyyah also occurred, which is negating and denying the Attributes of Allaah.” (A history of the innovated sects: Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah)

“The Murji’ah have deviated concerning this foundation (i.e. Eemaan) from what is clearly stated in the Qur’aan , the Sunnah and the statements of the Companions and those follow them in righteousness. Instead they have relied on their personal views and on the perverted interpretations they have reached from their understanding of the (Arabic) language. This is the way of the people of innovation. And this is why Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullah) would say : “The majority of the time that people fall into error is due to misinterpretation and incorrect analogy. This is why we find the Mu’tazilah, the Murji’ah, the Raafidah and other groups of innovators interpreting the Qur’aan with their own opinions and intellects and what they understand from it linguistically. As a result of this, you will find that they do not rely on the narrations of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam), the Companions, the Successor or the Muslim Imams. So they neither rely on the Sunnah nor do they rely on the unanimous consensus or reports of the Salaf. Rather they just rely on the intellect and the language. We do not find them relying on the recorded books of Tafseer and Hadeeth and the narrations of the Salaf. Instead they only rely on the books of literature and rhetoric that their leaders fabricated. This is also the way of the heretics. They only accept what is in the books of philosophy, literature and language. As for the books on Qur’an, Hadeeth and Narrations, they do not give any importance to them. These individuals turn away from the texts of the Prophets since according to them, they do not produce any knowledge! And they are the ones who interpret the Qur’aan according to their own personal views and understanding, without resorting to any of the narrations of the Prophet and the Companions. We already mentioned previously the statements of Imaam Ahmad and others which show the prohibition of this and an indication that this is the way of the people of innovation.” (al-Eemaan page.114)

‘A lot of innovators like the Khawaarij, the Rawaafid, the Qadariyyah, the Jahmiyyah, the Mushabbihah hold fast to deviant beliefs ; and they believe it to be the truth. And (they also) believe that whosoever differs with them has committed Kufr ! And in them (and these evil beliefs of theirs) is a big resemblance to one of the qualities of Jews and Christians; which is to deny the truth and commit injustice to the people. Most of those who declare others as disbelievers consider a certain statement to be Kufr of which they do not understand the reality and do not know its proofs. Contrary to them are those who approve of everyone whatever their deviation, [making this to be] like what the scholars have approved in the issue of Ijtihaad where there is room for differences, and this way has overcome many among the Murji’ah and some of the Soofees and the Philosophers. just like the first way (of believing that whosoever differs with them has committed Kufr !) overcame many from the people of desires (ahlul-Ahwaa) and people of kalaam (Ahlul- Kalaam.) And both these ways are deviant and outside of the Book and the Sunnah.” (Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa vol. 12, p. 497)

“The people of logic and kalaam call Ahlus-Sunnah "Hashaweeyah" [people with no worth] and "Nawaabit" [weeds] and "Ghuthaa" [scum] , as they think that anyone who is not upon their logic and theology speaks unintelligent rabble. However the truth is that , their way (the way of the people of logic and kalam): is not needed by an intelligent man, nor is it useful to a stupid man.” (The Evil Names that the Innovators Have Fabricated Against Ahlus-Sunnah: from ‘Aqeedat ul-Hamawiyyah)

Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee (rahimahullah):

“And if only the people of blameworthy opinion busied themselves with beneficial knowledge, and the seeking of the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah, and followed the way of the fuqahaa (jurists) and the muhaddithoon (scholars of Hadeeth) then they would find that this would be sufficient for them. And the narration (Hadeeth) would take place of the opinion, which they hold. This is because the Hadeeth explains the fundamentals of Tawheed, the Threats and the Promises from Allah and the Attributes of Allah. It also contains information about Paradise and Hell-Fire and what Allah has prepared therein for the pious and the wicked… The Hadeeth explains stories of the past Prophets … It contains histories of the kings of the past and the description of the battles of the Messenger, his expeditions, rulings, judgments, sermons, warnings, predictions and miracles. It also contains information about the Prophet’s wives, Children, Relatives, and companions, and a mention of their excellence and merit. And the Hadeeth contains the Tafseer of the Qur’an; information and the wise remembrance contained in it. It also contains the sayings of the Companions about the Qur’an’s meanings. And Allah made Ahlul-Hadeeth (the People of Hadeeth) the pillar of the Sharee’ah and the destroyer of every despised innovations. So they are Allah’s wardens among His creation, and they link between the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) and his Ummah, and they strive to preserve Allah’s Deen. So their light shines brightly, their excellence remains, their signs are clear, their positions evident and their proofs are over-powering. And while all the sects coil themselves around vain desires and prefer the blind-following of opinion : for the Ahlul-Hadeeth , the Book of Allaah is their provision, the Sunnah their proof, the Messenger their leader and his command (Hadeeth) is their ascription. They do not deviate upon vain desire, nor turn to mere conjecture. They accept what is reported by the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘ alayhi wasallam) and are the trustworthy and reliable ones, who memorize the Deen and they are its treasures, its storehouses of knowledge and its bearers. If anyone differs about a Hadeeth then it is referred back to them. Their judgment is thus accepted and listened to. From them is every scholar and Imaam. They are the Saved Sect, and their way is the straight one…” (Sharaful Ashaabul Hadeeth)

Saturday, May 10, 2008

Bukhara Kota Pengetahuan

''Gudang pengetahuan!'' Begitu sasterawan besar Iran, Ali Akbar Dehkhoda menjuluki Bukhara -- salah satu kota penting dalam sejarah peradaban Islam. Penyair Jalaludin Rumi pun secara khusus menyanjung Bukhara.

''Bukhara sumber pengetahuan. Oh, Bukhara pemilik pengetahuan,'' ungkap Rumi dalam puisinya menggambarkan kekagumannya kepada Bukhara tanah kelahiran sederetan ulama dan ilmuan besar.

Nama Bukhara kononnya berasal dari bahasa Mongol, yakni 'Bukhar' yang berarti lautan ilmu. Kota penting dalam jejak perjalanan Islam itu terletak di sebelah Barat Uzbekistan, Asia Tengah. Wilayah itu, dalam sejarah Islam dikenal dengan sebutan Wa Wara' an-Nahr atau daerah-daerah yang pinggiran di sepanjang Sungai Jihun.

Letak Bukhara terbilang amat amat strategik, kerana ia berada di Jalur Sutera. Tak harranlah, jika sejak dulu lagi Bukhara telah menjelma menjadi pusat perdagangan, ilmu pengetahuan, budaya dan agama. Kota itu mempertemukan para pedagang dari berbagai bangsa di Asia barat termasuk Cina. Lalu sejak bila Bukhara mulai dikenal?

Menurut syair kepahlawanan Iran, kota Bukhara dibangun oleh raja Siavush anak Shah Kavakhous, salah satu Shah dalam cerita dongeng Iran yang berasal dari Dinasti Pishdak. Secara rasmi, kota itu berdiri ada sejak tahun 500 SM di wilayah yang kini disebut Arq. Namun, oasis Bukhara telah didiami manusia mulai tahun 3000 SM.

Wilayah Bukhara, sejak 500 SM sudah menjadi wilayah kekuasaan Persia. Bukhara berpindah tangan dari satu kekuasaan ke kekuasaan lainnya, seperti Alexander Agung, kekaisaran Hellenistic Seleucid, Greco-Bactaian, dan Kerajaan Kushan.

Selama masa itu, Bukhara menjadi pusat pemujaan Anahita. Dalam satu putaran bulan, penduduknya biasa merayakan ritual ibadah dengan mengganti berhala yang sudah usang dengan berhala yang baru. Sebelum Islam menaklukan wilayah itu, penduduk Bukhara adalah para penganut agama Majusi yang menyembah api.

Kehidupan penduduk Bukhara mulai berubah ketika tentara Islam datang membawa dakwah. Pada akhir tahun 672, Ziyad bin Abihi menugaskan Miqdam Rabi' bin Haris berlayar dari Iraq menuju daerah Khurasan. Miqdam berjaya menaklukan wilayah itu sampai ke Iran Timur. Setelah Ziyad meninggal, Mu'awiyah, Khalifah Bani Umayyah memerintahkan Ubaidillah bin Ziyad untuk menaklukan Bukhara.

Pasukan tentara Islam pertama menjejakan kaki di tanah Bukhara pada 674 M di bawah kepimpinan panglima perang, Ubaidillah bin Ziyad. Namun, pengaruh Islam benar-benar mulai mendominasi wilayah itu pada 710 M di bawah kepemimpinan Qutaiba bin Muslim. Seabad setelah terjadinya Perang Talas, Islam mulai mengakar di Bukhara.

Tepat pada tahun 850 M, Bukhara telah menjadi ibu kota Dinasti Samanid. Dinasti itu membawa dan menghidupkan kembali bahasa dan budaya Iran ke wilayah itu. Ketika Dinasti Samanid berkuasa, selama 150 tahun Bukhara bukan hanya menjadi pusat pemerintahan, namun juga pusat perdagangan.

Pedagang dari Asia Barat dan Cina bertemu di kota itu. Di kota Bukhara pun berkembang bisnis pembuatan kain sutera, tenunan kain dari kapas, permaidani, produk tembaga, dan perhiasan dari emas serta perak dengan berbagai bentuk. Bukhara pun tersohor sebagai pasar induk yang menampung produk dari Cina dan Asia Barat.

Selain itu, kerana berada di sekitar Sungai Jihun, tanah Bukhara pun dikenal sangat subur. Buah-buahan pun melimpah. Kota Bukhara terkenal dengan buah-buahan seperti Barkouk Bukhara yang terkenal hampir seribu tahun. Geliat bisnis dan perekonomian pun tumbuh pesat. Tak heran, bila kemudian nama Bukhara makin populer.

Pada era keemasan Dinasti Samanid, Bukhara juga menjadi pusat intelektual dunia Islam. Saat itu, di kota Bukhara bermunculan madrasah-madrasah yang mengajarkan ilmu pengetahuan. Dinasti Samanid pun mulai memperbaiki sistem pendidikan umum. Di setiap perkampungan berdiri sekolah. Keluarga yang kaya-raya mendidikan anak-anak mereka dengan sistem home schooling atau sekolah di rumah.

Anak yang berusia enam tahun mulai mendapat pendidikan dasar selama enam tahun. Setelah itu, anak-anak di Bukhara boleh melanjutkan studinya ke madrasah. Pendidikan di madrasah dilalui dalam tiga tingkatan, masing-masing selama tujuh tahun. Keseluruhan pendidikan di madrasah harus ditempuh selama 21 tahun.

Para siswa mempelajari berbagai ilmu pengetahuan, mulai ilmu agama, matematik, undang-undang, logika, musik serta puisi. Keaktifan kegiatan pendidikan di Bukhara itu telah membawa pengaruh yang positif dalam penyebaran dan penggunaan bahasa Persia dan Uzbek.

Maka tidak hairanlah kemampuan penduduk Bukhara dalam menulis, menguasai ilmu pengetahuan serta keterampilan berkembang pesat. Di tanah Bukahara pun kemudian lahir sederetan ulama dan ilmuwan Muslim termasyhur.

Pada tahun 998 M, kekuasaan Dinasti Samanid berakhir dan digantikan Dinasti Seljuk. Tak lama kemudian, diambli alih Dinasti Khawarizm. Pada masa itu, status Bukhara sebagai pusat peradaban dan perkembangan Islam masih tetap dipertahankan. Ketika masa kekuasaan pemerintah Sultan Ala'udin Muhammad Khawarizm Syah berakhir, Bukhara sebagai pusat ilmu pengetahuan pun mulai meredup.

Pada tahun 1220 M, peperangan hebat antara pasukan Sultan Ala'udin dengan pasukan Mongol di bawah komando Jengiz Khan meletus. Serangan dahsyat yang dilakukan 70 ribu pasukan Jengiz Khan tak mampu dihadang. Bukhara pun jatuh ke tangan pasukan Mongol. Dengan kejam dan sadis, pasukan Mongol membantai penduduk kota, membakar madrasah, masjid dan bangunan penting lainnya.

Jengiz Khan meluluh-lantakkan peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan yang dibangun umat Islam di Bukhara. Bukhara rata dengan tanah. Ibnu Athir melukiskan kondisi Bukhara dengan kata-kata:ka an lam taghna bi al-amsi (seolah-olah tak ada apa-apa sebelumnya). Cahaya kemajuan peradaban yang ilmu pengetahuan yang terpancancar dari Bukhara pun meredup.

Nasib tragis ini, 38 tahun kemudian dialami pula oleh Baghdad, ketika Hulagu Khan keturunan Jengiz Khan menghancurkan metropolis intelektual abad pertengahan itu dengan bengis dan sadis.

Ulama dan Ilmuan Besar dari Bukhara

Masa kejayaan Bukhara sebagai pusat ilmu pengetahuan telah melahirkan sederetan ulama dan ilmuwan besar dari Bukhara. Hal itu menunjukkan bahwa Bukhara memiliki pengaruh yang besar pada era keemasannya. Di antara tokoh-tokoh besar asal Bukhara itu memberi kontribusi yang besar bagi perkembangan agama Islam dan ilmu pengetahuan itu antara lain: Imam Bukhari

Imam Bukhari
Imam Bukhari terlahir di Bukhara pada 13 Syawal 194 H bertepatan dengan 21 Julai 810 M. Ia adalah ahli hadits termasyhur. Imam Bukhari dijuluki amirul mukminin fil hadith atau pemimpin kaum mukmin dalam hal ilmu hadits. Nama lengkapnya Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin al-Mughirah bin Bardizbah al-Ju'fi al-Bukhari.

Tak lama setelah lahir, Imam Bukhari kehilangan penglihatannya. Bersama gurunya Syekh Ishaq, ia menghimpun hadits-hadits shahih dalam satu kitab, dari satu juta hadits yang diriwayatkan 80 ribu perawi disaringnya menjadi 7.275 hadits. Ia menghabiskan waktunya untuk menyeleksi hadits shahih selama 16 tahun. Shahih Bukhari adalah salah satu karyanya.

Ibnu Sina
Terlahir di Afsyahnah, Bukhara pada 980 M. Ibnu Sina adalah seorang ahli falsafah, ilmuan sekaligus seorang dokt0r perubatan. Dia digelar 'Bapak Perubatan Modern'. Buah fikiran dan karyanya dituangkan dalam 450 buku, sebahagian besar mengupas filsafat dan kedoktoran. Ibnu Sina merupakan ilmuan Islam paling terkenal. Hasil pemikiran yang paling termasyhur dari Ibnu Sina adalah The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanun fi At Tibb).

Selain itu, era tamadun Bukhara juga telah melahirkan sosok ulama dan Ilmuwan seperti Abu Hafsin Umar bin Mansur Al-Bukhari yang dikenali dengan nama Al-Bazzar, Al-Hafiz Abu Zakaria Abdul Rahim Ibnu Nasr Al-Bukhari, Abdul rahim bin Ahmad Al-Bukhari, dan Abu Al-Abbas Al-Maqdisi Al-Hambali.

Di bidang sastera, Bukhara juga telah menghasilkan sederet sastrawan dan penyair kondang. Para penyair dan sastrawan kelahiran Bukhara telah menisbahkan nama mereka kepada Bukhara. Para penyair dan sasterawan dari Bukhara itu antara lain Ar-Raudaky, Fadhil Al-Bukhari, Am'aq Al-Bukhari, Al-Khajandi, Lutfullah An-Naisaburi, serta Ahmad Al-Karamani.

Bukhara di Era Modern

Meski masa kejayaannya telah berlalu pada abad ke-13 M, Bukhara masih memegang peranan yang penting di abad ke-19 M. Menurut Demezon, pada tahun 1833, Bukhara tetap menjadi bagian yang penting dalam kehidupan keagamaan dan budaya di kawasan tersebut.

"Madrasah-madrasah di Bukhara masih terkenal hingga ke Turkistan. Pelajar-pelajar dari Khiva, Kokand, Gissar bahkan dari Samarkand dan kawasan Tatar berbondong-bondong belajar ke Bukhara. Ada sebanyak 60 madrasah di Bukhara yang sukses maupun kurang sukses," papar Demezon menggambarkan situasi Bukhara di abad ke-19.

Memasuki era modern, Bukhara berada di bawah kekuasaan Rusia. Bukhara pun dijadikan semacam bidak catur dalam 'permainan besar' antara Rusia dengan Inggris. Kota itu benar-benar merdeka selama revolusi komunis. Namun, Bukhara akhirnya masuk dalam kekuasaan Uni Soviet.

Menyusul terbentuknya Uni Soviet, Tajiks yang merupakan bagian dari Uzbekistan menuntut kemerdekaan. Rusia yang mendukung Uzbekistan atas Tajiks membenyerahkan kota yang secara tradisional berbahasa dan berbudaya Iran, yakni Bukhara dan Samarkand kepada Uzbekistan.

heri ruslan

Islahiy & Islamiy

تحركوا والله سيحرك قلوب الناس
"Bergeraklah kamu, maka Allah akan menggerakkan hati manusia."

Dalam memahami konsep dakwah, ada thawabit dan ada mutaghayyirat. Thawabit adalah asas, suatu ketetapan. Artinya sebagai pedoman yang tidak boleh bergeser sedikitpun. Kalau bergeser akan lari dari tujuan. Mutaghayyirat (perubahan) dalam rangka inovasi. Mengapa harus inovasi, kerana Harakah itu sendiri bermakna gerakan. Sesuatu yang bergerak akan dinamis. Dinamika sesuai dengan marhalah (tahap) dakwah itu sendiri. Elemen dakwah harus memahami mengapa dalam setiap marhalah ada perbezaan. Dengan demikian, setiap mihwar berbeza pendekatannya. Maka, tiap marhalah akan melahirkan tokohnya. Setiap era tentu berbeza pula dengan perjuangan dakwah di era lain sebelum dan selepasnya. Tapi esensi perjuangan tetap sama, mengejar kesempatan beramal shalih untuk dapat mentadbir negara ini.

Cita-cita kita gantungkan setinggi-tingginya. Tapi, kenyataannya yang ingin membangun negeri ini tak hanya umat Islam. Bahkan tak hanya satu gerakan dalam tubuh Islam. Negeri ini bermacam-macam penghuninya. Mereka semua (insya Allah) berniat sama membangun negeri. Dalam operasional dakwah ada banyak pilihan manhaj (metode) yg dapat kita terapkan. Ada yang fokus di bidang pendidikan, politik, budaya dan lasykar. Sudah seharusnya manhaj yang kita pilih adalah yg islahi (perbaikan) dan tentu islami. Prinsip-prinsip melahirkan kader yang Rabbani yang tidak lepas dari al-Qur'an as-Sunnah. Kader Rabbani hanya dapat lahir dari proses saling belajar.

"Hendaklah kamu menjadi orang-orang rabbani, karena kamu selalu mengajarkan Al Kitab dan disebabkan kamu tetap mempelajarinya." (QS Ali Imran: 79) D

akwah adalah menyeru, ajakan itu harus sesuai dengan bahasa kaum itu sendiri. Dai tidak boleh menyepelekan hal kecil seperti, senyum. Senyum adalah bahasa dunia. Semua orang merasa senang ketika diberi senyum. Maka dakwah harus sesuai dengan fitrah. Fitrah manusia senantiasa punya jiwa ketaatan sebagaimana alam ini taat pada Sang Kholiq. Salah satu fitrah di alam semesta ini: Allah mempergilirkan kekuasan. Tugas penguasa adalah melindungi jiwa, akal, harta martabat dan agama.

Begitu pentingnya dakwah karenanya dakwah tak bisa dikerjakan sambil lalu. Harus bersifat syumuliyah, integral dalam memandang segala sesuatu. Sering kita dengar perumpamaan orang buta yang memegang gajah. Siapa yang memegang telinga menyimpulkan gajah itu seperti umpama daun yang lebar. Bagaimana kalau yang dipegang, kaki, belalai atau gadingnya? Maka dakwah juga harus mencakup, ideologi, ekonomi, sosial dan budaya.

Bukan hanya politik yang dijadikan didahulukan. Beban dakwah di era ini memang berat. Oleh kerana itu kita tidak mampu memikulnya sekaligus, apalagi sendiri. Setiap kader dari berbagai lapisan harus mengamalkan fastabiqul khairat dalam aktiviti dakwah. Setiap individu harus berupaya untuk melewati tahapannya hingga sampai di level ustadziyatul 'alam (guru bagi alam semesta).

Beban dakwah yang berat harus dipikul seimbang (mutawasit). Semua teori-teori yang kita pahami dalam manhaj ini adalah pengantar yang harus kita amalkan. Memahami konsep dakwah adalah satu perkara dan melaksanakannya adalah perkara yang tak boleh ditunda. Konsep bukanlah barang pajangan. Dakwah Rasulullah saw menyentuh semua orang. Dan tak ada perkara yang terlewati. Bayangkan sebesar-besar kota yang kita huni masih ada saja yang belum tersentuh dakwah. Apatah lagi bagi daerah-daerah yang terpencil. Mereka yang berlambat-lambat akan tertinggal dan mereka yang diam akan tergilas.

Sekali lagi erti harakah adalah bergerak. Gerak yang istimrariyah (terus menerus). Tak ada kata berhenti. Bayangkan air yang bertakung hanya akan menjadi sumber penyakit. Negeri ini harus diselamatkan. Umat Islam sepatutnya menjadi driving force yang terbesar dalam mencorak pembangunan bangsa ini karena kebanyakan negeri ini dihuni umat Islam. Sejarah mencatat nikmat ini adalah sesuatu yang harus diperjuangkan, bukan diterima begitu saja. Tak mudah menjaga karunia ini !

Eman Mulyatman

Senario Kebangkitan Islam Akan Datang

Memetik dari coretan Ust Syarwat di, gambaran berikut sepatutnya membuat kaum muslimin optimistik bahawa Islam semakin diterima sebagai sistem yang menyeluruh untuk mencapai kesejahteraan umat manusia sejagat. Namun hadangan yang hadangan yang beliau gambarkan itu mesti dilenyapkan dahulu .... oleh tangan kita sendiri.

Coretan beliau .....................

Ada dua senario dalam kebangkitan Islam di masa yang akan datang.

Pertama: Melalui Bangsa Maju

Abad ke-21 ini memang era yang ajaib, sebuah era di mana orang-orang kafir berdondong-bondong masuk Islam. Eropa sudah mengalami Islamisasi hingga menurut Greet Wilder, jumlahnya sudah 54 juta orang.

Sementara bangsa-bangsa non muslim di Eropa sebentar lagi punah. Sebab mereka umumnya tidak mau punya anak. Bayangkan, sebuah peradaban punya pandangan untuk tidak punya anak. Dengan data dan rumus tertentu, kita dapat menghitung bila agaknya mereka akan punah, seperti gajah Afrika, harimau Sumatera dan panda di China.

Maka kabar gembira bahwa umat Islam akan menguasai Eropa sudah terjawab hari ini. Setidaknya kita sudah merasakan langsung bagaimana era kebangkitan muslim itu segera muncul.

Kedua: Melalui Bangsa Muslim

Yang masih menjadi tanda tanya besar adalah bangsa-bangsa muslim sendiri. Mereka memang sudah pernah mengalami kejayaan peradaban, dan kini sedang bertekuk di bawah kaki kekuasaan Barat.

Konfrontasi secara ketenteraan barangkali bukan pilihan sederhana, sebab semua unsur kekuatan ada di tangan musuh. Lagi pun selama hampir 50 tahun perang melawan Barat, bangsa-bangsa muslim tetap saja tetap di bawah hegemoni mereka. Memang secara fisikal kita tidak dijajah, tapi secara teknologi, ekonomi, politik, birokrasi, pengurusan dan gaya hidup, kita memang terjajah sungguh.

Dalam pandangan kami, kalau sekedar menguasai teknologi, rasanya tidak ada masalah. Nyaris semua teknologi yang ada di Barat sana, sudah dapat kita aplikasikan di sini.

Bahkan bukan sekedar kita beli sebagai hasil bentuk produksi, tetapi kita pun sudah punya begitu banyak para pakar di bidang yang produksinya belum ada di negeri ini.

Di Jepun, kami bertemu dengan sekian ratus mahasiswa program doktoral pelbagai bidang pengajian. Rupanya memang tidak sedikit orang-orang cerdik pandai dari kaum muslimin. Jumlahnya sudah tidak terhitung lagi.

Nyaris semua kota di Jepun yang ada IPT, diisi oleh para mahasiswa genius dari rantau Nusantara. Kualiti keIslaman mereka pun cukup membanggakan, termasuk juga perhatian mereka yang besar dalam masalah penerapan syariah dalam kehidupan.

Kalau dihitung-hitung, keberadaan mereka ini saja sudah menjadi aset penting untuk membangun teknologi di negeri kita. Secara rambang, kita boleh saja membangun peradaban secara fizikal menyamai kehebatan Jepun. Bahkan tidak mustahil lebih maju dari Jepun.

Kita boleh saja membina Shinkansen yang mampu memecut dengan kelajuan 450 km per jam. Teknologinya boleh dengan mudah diadaptasi. Bahkan banyak korporat pasti berebut untuk mengeluarkan dana sebab prospek bisnes sangat menggiurkan. Dan itu sudah dibuktikan di Jepun. Sejak mula pembinaannya hingga kini mereka sudah tinggal menikmati keuntungannya.

Rasanya bodoh sekali kalau di rantau ini kita tidak segera mencipta model Shinkansen, yang mungkin bisa saja lebih cepat dari yang ada di Jepun. Jadi jarak 1000 km cukup dirempuh jangka masa 2 jam, tanpa boarding, pemerikasaan dan ke lapangan terbang . Dalam waktu singkat, kalau birokrasinya jelas dan mendukung, pasti akan segera break event.

Titik Pangkal Masalah

Yang jadi masalah buat bangsa kita (baca : Indonesia ) ini justru pada mentalitinya. Di antaranya mental di kalangan para birokrat yang jadi broker. Tidak ada teknologi baru yang masuk dan didirikan, kecuali mereka minta 'bahagian'. Dan 'bahagian' ini sama sekali tidak jelas nilainya. Bisa sangat mahal dan menghabiskan waktu.

Belum lagi kekangan ketidak-tentuan alur birokrasi yang semakin rumit. Semua itu membuat teknologi menjadi sulit masuk ke negeri kita.

Berbeda dengan mentaliti para birokrat Jepun, di mana mereka sengaja menyiapkan 'pengambil-alihan' teknologi. Ketika Jepang dulu belum mampu membuat kereta, mereka kirim mahasiswa ke Amerika. Mereka juga membeli beberapa unit kereta untuk sample. Lalu mesin-mesin kereta itu dibawa pulang ke Jepun untuk diselidik dan dipelajari.

Awalnya hasil tiruan itu masih belum memberangsangkan kerana ada beberapa kompnen yang ternyata perlu kejituan tinggi. Hasil awalnya masih seperti motorsikal China yang kita kenal, mudah rosak .

Tapi lama-lama, mereka dengan tekun terus berjuang sehingga akhirnya menjadi industri automotif terkemuka di dunia. Bahkan bangsa Amerika pun mengimport kereta dari Jepun. Kereta ronda jabatan polis CHIPS di California bermerek Honda.

Jadi yang membezakan antara bangsa kita dan Jepun justru pada mentaliti dan pola birokrasi para penguasa. Bukan sekedar urusan iman dan ibadah. Percuma saja punya iman tinggi tapi tidak diterjemahkan dalam bentuk sikap dan mental.

Iman Teoritikal

Model iman bangsa-bangsa muslim kebanyakannya hanya sebatas teori tauhid rububiyah dan uluhiyah, itu pun hanya sekedar hafalan di buku pelajaran. Atau sekedar mampun untuk menghukum orang lain sebagai ahli bid'ah dan ahli syirik.

Tapi iman model begitu itu tidak menghasilkan sesuatu yang produktif dan boleh membangun peradaban. Itulah sebabnya bangsa Jepun sampai hari ini belum lagi kita lihat tertarik masuk Islam.

Sebaliknya, ada sekian banyak sunnatullah yang justru saat ini kita tidak penuhi. Misalnya, bagaimana korupsi berjamaah itu masih saja menjadi 'anutan' bangsa kita. Juga penyalahgunaan kuasa dan wewenang hanya untuk mengumpulkan kekayaan pribadi. Ironinya, mereka inilah justeru yang menjadi penghalang kemajuan dari segi teknologi.

Jadi kendala kita yang sebenarnya adalah negeri kita dipimpin oleh orang 'jahat' yang terlantik oleh kejahatan yang terbit dari diri kita yang memilihnya. Begitu 'orang jahat' itu diganti, para penggantinya pun cenderung jadi jahat juga. Intinya cuma bergantian saja, siapa yang jadi penjahat. Hari ini si fulan jadi tokoh jahat, besok gantian, lawan politiknya yang jadi penjahat.

Rupanya jawatan itu seringkali mengubah orang jadi jahat. Terkadang orang yang tadinya baik, begitu jadi jawatan akhirnya ikut juga jadi jahat.

Wallahu a'lam bishshawab, wassalamu 'alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,

Ahmad Sarwat, Lc